Statistics Used as Evidence
The commercial filbert industry is centered primarily in Oregon and Washington. The U. S. crop has increased markedly since the 1920's when it totalled around 50 tons. The 1961-67 average for Oregon was, 8,400 tons,and 464 tons for Washington. In 1961 the crop rose to 13,000 tons in Oregon. As shown in Figure 1, however, total production is only a fraction of that for almond, pecan and Persian walnut.( 483)
Statistics from "Edible Nuts, Minor Tree Crops" by Norman Childers
The author identifies these statistics as originating with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and so a reader can assume that they are reasonably accurate. The text refers the reader to a graph that presents a visual comparison of the relative numbers of filberts, almonds, pecans, and walnuts grown in the U. S. for the years between 1929 and 1965. Statistics are often displayed in tables or graphs to help readers understand the relationships between the numbers.
Comment on "Edible Nuts"
By the decade of the [eighteen] fifties, it was evident that a diversified economic life and free labor had enabled the North to push ahead [of the South in economic growth]. Although the population of the two sections had been about even in 1800, the free states had a population in 1860 of over 19,000,000 against the 12,315,000 in the South. Of the real and personal property of the country, amounting to $16, 159 billion (1859), the northern states were credited with $10.57 billion. Of the $3.736 billion of wealth produced in 1859, northern farms and factories contributed three-quarters. (363)
From American Political and Social History "The Old South" by Faulkner
The statistics here are used to compare the economic growth of the northern and southern states prior to the civil war. The statistical facts support the author's assertion in the topic sentence that the North was pushing ahead of the South in the prewar years.
Comment on "The Old South"
The author cites the sources for these numbers in a bibliography at the end of the text. These include general histories as well as studies of particular segments of the economy. Some of the titles are The Cotton Kingdom, Tobacco Industry in the United States, and Southern Wealth and Northern Profits. Academic studies by recognized scholars can generally be accepted as credible; however, this was true in the past more so than it is at present given the growing politicalization of many college and university faculty who often exhibit bias in their writings.
The stock market crash of October, 1929, was but the beginning of an economic decline that continued with little interruption until the spring of 1933. Stock prices which had climbed to the most unwarranted heights now dropped to but a small fraction of their former quotations. From September 1929, to January, 1933, according to the Dow-Jones index, thirty industrial stocks fell from an average of 364.9 to 62.7 dollars per share, a group of twenty public utilities dropped from 141.9 to 28.0 dollars per share, and twenty railroad stocks declined from an average of 180.0 to 28.1 dollars per share. The same story could be told of bank stocks and, as we shall see, of more tangible commodities. When the stock market decline finally hit bottom in July 1933, some $74,000,000,000, or five-sixths of the September, 1929 value, had disappeared. (645)
From American Economic History
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