A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z
ABSTRACT -- Something which is abstract is drawn away from physical existence and is apart from it. This meaning is indicated by the Latin root, "abstractus." The prefix, "ab--," means "away," and the root, "trahere," means "to draw." Because abstractions are drawn out of, or apart from, physical existence, they are not perceptible to the senses and are therefore the opposite of concrete realities. Abstractions can only be known through their concrete manifestations. For instance, words such as "love," " faith," "courage," " justice," and "honesty" name abstract qualities that have no physical existence in themselves but are made real through actions. Entering a burning building to rescue someone is an example of courage. Returning a lost wallet to the rightful owner is an example of honesty. Other words such as "beauty," "grandeur," or "revulsion" similarly denote abstractions that may be manifested in objects. For instance, a human face may exemplify beauty; a mountain, grandeur; and a rotting corpse, revulsion.
Abstractions are simplifications of complex realities. The word "beauty" symbolizes an abstract quality that may have infinite manifestations. There are many beautiful faces and many points of beauty in a face. Because so much is implied by the word, we are free to make any number of inferences.
Since abstract language says so little and implies so much, it can veil concrete realities, letting a writer evade unpleasant facts that give evidence contrary to his argument. Readers can paint a picture that satisfies them, being unaware that the language hides a reality contrary to their values. This is a point George Orwell makes in his essay " Politics and the English Language."
ALLEGORY --A symbolic story disguised to represent meanings other than those indicated on the surface. The characters in an allegory often have no individual personality, but are embodiments of moral qualities and other abstractions. The allegory is closely related to the parable, fable, and metaphor, differing from them largely in intricacy and length. A great variety of literary forms have been used for allegories. John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, a prose narrative, is an allegory of man's spiritual salvation.
ALLUSION -- An allusion is a reference to a person, place, event, or thing that bears an association to the topic of a discourse. This association expands the discourse by drawing in ideas that illustrate the topic, provide a comparison or contrast, suggest consequences, evoke an image, or otherwise enlarge or elucidate the author's ideas. In much "classic" literature, allusions are made to the Bible, to Greek and Roman writers, and to mythology. However, allusions may be made to any field: history, politics, science, Etc.
The nature of the allusions affect both the immediate comprehension of the discourse as well as its eventual fate. While allusions enhance the understanding of informed readers, they impede the comprehension of those less knowledgeable. And if the allusions are to people, places, events, and literary works of significance, they also help embed the literature within the cultural cannon, enhancing its interest, relevance, and longevity. On the other hand, if they point to minor events, little known persons, or passing fads, the accessibility of the discourse is eventually diminished, making it dated and obscure, a fit subject for doctoral students writing dissertations. E. M. Forster's essay "My Wood" is rich in allusions of the first kind.
ANECDOTE --A brief narrative or story often serving to make a point. Anecdotal evidence may be accumulated to substantiate a case or suggest a conclusion. Or, an anecdote may be amusing or entertaining within itself. Anecdotes may be fictional, or non-fictional. Anecdotes are often expressed orally, but good anecdotes find their way into print. For example: Recall the anecdote of George Washington, that he could not tell a lie when he cut down the cherry tree.
ANNOTATION -- A note added to a text in order to comment, explain, criticize, translate, cite sources, gloss, or paraphrase. Annotations are often used to explain " allusions ". An annotated edition of a book is one that includes notes by an editor. A variorum edition gives the notes of many editors or gives variant readings of a text. An annotated bibliography is a list of books with notes about their contents or usefulness.
ANTHOLOGY -- An anthology is a collection of works by various authors. Common examples are readers for college courses that bring together essays by different authors. In literature courses, anthologies are collections of stories, poem, and plays by various writers. The word is derived from two Greek roots: "anthos-" which means "flower," and "Legein" which means "to gather." Thus, taken literally, the word means "a gathering of flowers." The metaphorical extension to books implies that the editors have searched the works of various writers to find the most beautiful of their creations and have brought them together in the same way that one would go into a field and gather a bouquet of the most beautiful flowers.
ARGUMENT -- Argument is one of the four modes of discourse along with description, narration, and exposition. The purpose of an argument is to convince your reader to accept your point of view on an issue or to take an action. For example, you may wish to convince someone that the pledge of allegiance should be allowed in schools even though it includes a reference to God, or you may wish to convince someone to take part in a public demonstration opposing abortion. The main idea of an argument is more precisely called a thesis. A distinction is often made between argument and persuasion. While argument relies on logic and evidence and appeals to the intellect, persuasion includes these elements but also uses appeals to the emotions. It also has the additional goal of not just wanting to convince an audience of the validity of an argument but to get the audience to act. Click here for further discussion.
AUTOBIOGRAPHY -- An autobiography is the story of a person's live written by that person. In addition to a chronology of events, an autobiography may include reflections on the events and the people involved in them, as well as comments on the contemporary social and cultural setting. However, the focus remains on the individual's experiences, and the tone is personal and introspective. If the focus is shifted to public personages and events, then the writing is more properly called a memoir. Autobiographies differ from diaries and journals in that they are extended narratives intended for publication.
BELLE LETTRES -- A term from the French meaning "beautiful letters or fine writing." It is applied to literature as opposed to expository writing and includes the genres of drama, poetry, fiction, criticism, and essays. Thus, it denotes writing which is valued for its imaginative and artistic qualities as opposed to its informative, didactic, philosophical, or intellectual content. It may then also indicate writing which is artificial or lacks substance. This pejorative connotation originated with Jonathan Swift in the Tatler (no. 230 p. 2. 1710) where he referred to "The Traders in History and Politicks and the Belle Lettres."
BLACK HUMOR --
CARPE DIEM --
CHRONOLOGICAL-- This means following a time order. A chronological recitation of events starts at the beginning and proceeds to relate actions in the order in which they occurred. Chronological organization is sometimes called "linear" because it can be represented as a time line with dates of events indicated along the line, proceeding from the most remote on the left to the most recent on the right. Narration ordinarily uses a chronological organization as in a child's fairytale which begins with "Once upon a time . . ." and ends with "And they lived happily ever after."
However, some writers of fiction, such as William Faulkner, deliberately violate the natural chronology of their narratives in order to juxtapose character or incident for effect. The natural order of events may be violated in a number of ways. A writer may begin a narrative medias res, or in the middle of things, use flashbacks, flashforwards, or embed one story within another. These manipulations are acceptable in fiction where the reader has leasure to sort things out, but in exposition, where the purpose is to convey information in the clearest way, they cannot be tolerated.
For example, chronological order is used in process analysis to explain the steps in producing a product or carrying out a procedure. Here, as in ordinary narrative, time markers and transitions are important. These include the ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.), as well as conjunctions, adverbs, and prepositional phrases. Click here for a list of transitional words and expressions.
Chronology is also important in cause and effect analysis. Causes and effects follow a chronological order: a source of ignition must precede a fire. However, you cannot always attribute event "B" to event "A" simply because "A" preceded "B." There may be multiple potential causes to any single event, particularly in the areas of human relationships and social events, and so the simple fact of chronological sequence is not sufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship for any particular event.
CLIMATIC ORDER -- This means to save the most important or interesting for last. The term emphatic order is sometimes used. People tend to remember best the last thing they hear or read. Therefore, if you have several safety precautions to observe, several reasons for supporting a political candidate, or several divisions of a topic to describe, then save the most important for last.
COHERENCE -- This word means "to stick together." It is made from the prefix co-- which means "together," as in the words "commission,""committee," "cohabit," "codefendant," and many more. The root is from the Latin haerere which means "to cling" and is found in the words "adhere" and "adhesive." When applied to writing, coherence means that the discourse is not only unified, all the statements being about the same topic, but that the statements " stick together " by following one another in a logical way.
The logical relations among the ideas in a coherent text make it easy to outline. Texts which lack logical relations among the ideas can only be outlined with difficulty, if at all. For example, people who suffer from schizophrenia often exhibit abrupt changes in the focus of their speech, making it impossible to create an outline for it.
Coherence can be achieved in a number of different ways. Chief among these is by the repetition of key words, the use of synonyms, and pronoun reference. Parallelism is another means. Also, following the accepted patterns of organization for different modes of discourse helps readers predict what the writer will do or say next. For more information and for illustrations of the various methods for achieving coherence, look at this example or this one.
COMMENT -- To comment is to remark on or say something about the topic of a discourse. A comment frequently takes the form of an explanation of a fact, an interpretation of a difficult statement, or an evaluation of an example. Comments are a typical part of paragraph development in expository writing. An expository paragraph usually opens with a topic sentence and then present facts, examples, or some other form of evidence to support the topic sentence. The writer then explains or evaluates the evidence with appropriate comments. Useful comments should make clear the relevance of the evidence to the topic. Dependency analysis of expository paragraphs reveals that comments are subordinate to the the ideas that they talk about. Further discussion and examples of comments are given on this page.
CONCLUSION -- The conclusion is the end of a piece of writing. Ideally, as with an introduction, a conclusion should be in proportion to the writing as a whole. Therefore, depending on the length of the whole, a conclusion may be only one or two sentences, a well developed paragraph, or more. Even if very brief, a conclusion is usually allotted a paragraph of its own.
A conclusion may accomplish several things. It should always let the reader know that the writer has said all he has to say about the topic and provide a sense of closure. It may begin with a transitional word or expression like "Finally," "In summary," or "In conclusion." It may also make some reference back to the main idea or reiterate the main points of the essay. When the text is organized inductively, the conclusion may explicitly state the meaning the writer draws from evidence presented. In a persuasive essay, the conclusion may give a final call for action.
Some of the techniques used in writing introductions can also be used in conclusions. A rhetorical question may prompt readers to think about an argument and to take action. When one quotation has been used in the introduction, another quotation on the same topic may be used in the conclusion. Ending with a story that illustrates the main idea is effective because it leaves the reader with a concrete illustration rather than just an abstract statement. Finally, a striking metaphor can illustrate the writer's meaning and give it force. What a conclusion should not do is to introduce new arguments or points to be developed. For examples of conclusions for essays, click here.
CONCRETE -- Something which is concrete has a physical existence and so is perceptible to the senses. It can be seen, heard, touched, tasted, or smelled. Concrete is the opposite of abstract. That which is concrete is also particular or specific. We see a specific dog or taste a specific donut.
COORDINATE -- This word has a prefix co-- which means "together" as in cooperate, committee, and copilot. The root ord comes from a Latin word which means "order." The ordinal numbers are written as first, second, third, etc. Things which are coordinate share the same position in a numbered series and so are on the same level of a hierarchy. Therefore they are similar in kind, equal in value or importance, and represent the same degree of generalization or specificity.
DEDUCTION -- The word “deduction” is derived from the Latin verb “deducere” which means to lead away or down. When you reason deductively, you begin with a general idea and use it to draw conclusions about particular facts you encounter. Thus, you reason “from” or “down from” a generalization in order to understand specific information. An essay is organized deductively when the main idea is stated at the beginning, usually at the end of the introduction. A writer should use deductive organization in exposition where the primary purpose is to convey information in a clear and direct way. Stating the main idea first gives the reader a point of reference for interpreting the facts and other evidence that follows.
DEPENDENCY ANALYSIS – Dependency
analysis is a method for identifying propositions and outlining their relations
in an oral or written discourse. Developed by James
Deese at the
The coordinate and subordinate relations among the propositions in the outline are determined by asking which propositions are dependent upon which others for their proper interpretation. If the correct understanding of a proposition is dependent upon information given in a previous one, then the second proposition is said to be dependent upon the first, and so is subordinate to it in the outline of the discourse. If two propositions are both dependent upon a third earlier proposition, then these two are coordinate with each other but subordinate to the one which precedes them.
Dependency analysis is useful for revealing problems with coherence. A hiatus affecting comprehension can occur if a writer does not maintain explicit relations among propositions, as when, for example, he does not give antecedents for pronouns or does not repeat key terms. For examples of logical parallelism among sentences in paragraphs, click here.
DIDACTIC -- The branch of education dealing with teaching. Literature that has the primary purpose of teaching its readers, particularly moral lessons. A term used to describe fiction, nonfiction or poetry that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking.
DISCOURSE-- The word is derived from the Latin verb “discurrere” which means “to run about.” Thus, the extension to linguistic productions is metaphoric: the sentences in a conversation or a written document will “run about” the subject, touching on its various aspects. A conversation about dinner is a discourse and so is the president's state of the union address. The sentences that define each of the terms in this glossary are a discourse and so is a descriptive paragraph in a novel or a letter to Dear Abby. Thus, "discourse" is a general term that includes any set of sentences about a topic. It is a jargon word from psycholinguistics that is useful when you want to refer to any sample of writing or speech and don't want to specify a particular kind such as an essay, a letter, a short story, or an interview.
DOCUMENT -- A document is a physical object, a page or pages that contain writing. It is usually a discourse with an explicit purpose, as for example, a will in which a person indicates how his property should be distributed after his death. As this example suggests, the term often refers to a written discourse with legal standing, meaning that it can be presented as evidence in a court of law. Public documents therefore include court house records, the congressional record, the minutes of city council meetings, and the records of other governmental bodies. However, any discourse may become a an object of public scrutiny, and therefore a document, whether originally intended for this purpose or not. Private letters or diaries which are published or presented as evidence in court are examples.
DOUBLE ENTENDRE -- A word or phrase which has two meanings. It may be deliberately ambiguous. Often the literal meaning is quite innocent, but the second, somewhat hidden meaning, maybe risque or improper.
ESSAY – There are two kinds of essays: formal and informal. An informal essay is a relatively brief prose composition usually written in the first person. It may be on any subject and expresses the writer's opinion on the subject, making it a personal statement of understanding, belief, or prejudice. Thus, it may reveal more about the writer than the subject he addresses. Because it is a personal statement of opinion presented in the writer's own voice, the tone of an informal essay is a salient feature, and this tone may range from the humorous to the caustic.
The structure of ideas may be rigorously logical and conform to the rules of hierarchical organization (making it easy to outline the contents), but more often the structure of ideas is associative, and the discourse is discursive rather than narrowly focused. The purpose is usually to entertain, but in so doing it may also inform or persuade. Informal essays fall within the realm of belle lettres and are published in popular periodicals, as collections of an author's work, or in collections of essays with works by numerous authors (an anthology).
In contrast, a formal essay is usually written in third person and has the purpose of informing rather than of entertaining. Therefore, the emphasis will be on the content, while the personality of the author is relegated to the background. The content is often detailed and technical when intended for a knowledgeable audience seeking additional understanding. The structure of a formal essay is usually explicitly logical and may even be preceded by an outline. Formal essays are found in professional and academic journals. In addition to informing, formal essays may also be intended to persuade, in which case the writer may appeal to the reader's emotions through his choice of language and evidence, and consequently the tone will not be objective even though the writer may still employ the third person point of view. For more information, click here.
EVIDENCE -- Evidence is the proof that a writer gives that what he says is valid and credible and is not just his opinion. Evidence falls into these categories: Facts, statistics, examples, testimony, and narrative.
A fact is a real event or a thing that can be demonstrated to exist. Factual statements affirm that an event or thing exists now or did so in the past. "George Washington was the first President of the United States" is a factual statement. "Water freezes at thirty-two degrees" is also a factual statement. Both are true. However, factual statements sometimes assert facts that are not true. "Benjamin Franklin drafted the Declaration of Independence" is a factual statement that is not true. "Copper is harder than steel" is a factual statement that is not true.
Factual statements are different from statements of opinion because factual statements can be proven to be either true or false. For example to verify the truthfulness of the statements concerning George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, one would consult contemporary records like the minutes taken in meetings of the Second Continental Congress, contemporary newspaper accounts, or histories written by authorities. Questions concerning physical facts may be answered by conducting scientific experiments such as putting a quantity of water in a container, lowering the temperature, and noting when ice crystals begin to form.
On the other hand, statements of opinion are not so easily verifiable and therefore are open to interpretation and debate. A statement such as "It was wrong for the United States to invade Iraq" can at present be argued endlessly, and only a record of events not yet complete may lead to an accurate assessment at some time in the future.
So, a writer who uses facts as evidence should collect the facts from creditable sources like reports of scientific experiments, government studies, and the writings of acknowledged experts in the field. But even then, a writer should be aware of bias that may have occurred in compiling the facts. Some "experts" may have a political agenda and stack the cards by selecting the evidence they use and then interpreting it to favor their position on issue. Click here to see paragraphs that use facts as evidence.
Statistics are numerical facts. They are derived by manipulating and analyzing large numbers representing tens, hundreds, thousands, and sometimes millions of individual occurrences. The statistical tests applied to the numbers are intended to reveal differences and trends among the many individual cases. Computers and calculators are routinely used to apply statistical tests, and the results are as reliable as the instruments and the tests themselves allow. But no matter how reliable the tests, the results may not be valid. The initial collection and selection of the data, as well as the kinds of tests that are applied, and the interpretation given to the results, are all points in the process where the bias of the investigators can exert an influence. Therefore, the statistics as well as factual statements derived from them need to be viewed critically and used with caution. Click here to see paragraphs that use statistics as evidence.
The third category of evidence is the example. Examples are instances that are concrete and specific and are used to illustrate general ideas. Examples may be real or hypothetical. Real examples can be drawn from history, contemporary events, scientific experiments, or any realm of human endeavour or natural occurrence that is germane to a topic.
In dealing with possible future consequences of a proposed action where conditions do not exist to provide suitable examples, a hypothetical example may be used. It is presented as a conditional statement asserting that if certain conditions pertained, then the consequences would be as projected based on these conditions. Sometimes an analogy may be used as a hypothetical example. When an analogy is used in this way, a comparison is made between a set of real conditions and what might be expected given a set of corresponding conditions that do not in fact exist. Click here to read paragraphs that use examples as evidence.
The fourth category of evidence is testimony. Testimony is what an expert says about a subject. The question here is what makes an expert. An expert is usually one who has academic training in a particular field, does research in the field, or has extensive practical experience. One should not confuse being well known with being an expert. Michael Jordan may advertise Wheaties, but he is not an expert on nutrition. Academic journals, books, and lectures are sources of expert testimony as well as of facts. Expert testimony may also be obtained through interviews. Experts in specific fields are often called upon to testify in court to substantuate or refute the validity of evidence. The important point is that the expert must be addressing the area of his expertise. A Hollywood star is not necessarily an expert on foreign policy and a rock musician is not necessarily an expert on ethics. Click here to read paragraphs that illustrate expert testimony.
The final category of evidence is narrative. While in testimony, an expert makes authoritative statements based on study and observation, in narrative the writer's expertise is based on personal experience. He tells of what has happened to him or what he has seen happen. Each person's experience is unique, but when people share common experiences, what happens to one may also be representative of what happens to others. The individual experience is therefore valuable because general truths may be derived from it.
For example, the story of one person who grew up in poverty during the great depression, or who survived the 911 attacks in New York, or who worked on a crab boat in Arctic waters will share similarities with the stories of others who have been through the same ordeals. The power of narrative is that it puts a face on common experience by bringing it to a personal level. It makes the general specific and the abstract concrete. Good writing is grounded in the things that we can respond to sensually and connect with emotionally. Click here to read examples of narratives that could be used as evidence.
Information on evidence is also given on this page.
EXAMPLE – According to The American Heritage Dictionary, an example is “one that is representative of a group as a whole.” It is commonly used in an idiom to mean “an illustrative instance” as in the sentence, “He read only classic English authors, for example, Austin and Dickens.” The word “illustration” is a synonym for “example” and is defined as “material used to clarify or explain.”
Examples are one kind of evidence that a writer may use to support his thesis or to illustrate his main idea.
EXPLICIT -- The word “explicit” comes from Latin verb “explicare” that means “to unfold.” (The prefix, “ex—,“ means “reversal,” and the root, “plicare,” means “to fold”.) Thus, a writer unfolds his meaning to the reader, making it apparent. An explicit statement is stated directly. It is clear and precise. It is to the point. It is as plain as the nose on your face or a traffic sign that says “Stop.” It should not be misunderstood by anyone.
In essays, the author's main idea is often stated explicitly. If it is, than you should be able to point to the sentence and say “Here is the main idea.” An essay with an explicit main idea at the beginning is said to have deductive organization.
EXPOSITION – The word “exposition” comes from the Latin verb “exponere” which means “to expound” The prefix, “ex--,” means “out “and the root “ponere” means “to place or put.” So literally translated, the word means “to put or to place out.” Thus, the purpose of exposition is to put or place out information so that it is easy for a reader to understand. Exposition is one of the four modes of discourse that also include narration, description, and argumentation.
Exposition can be subdivided into different types. The names indicate the way a topic will be developed. The most common types of exposition are comparison and contrast, division and classification, process analysis, definition, cause and effect, and problem solution. Some textbooks list Illustration (or exemplification), analogy, and others.
Since the purpose of exposition is to convey information in a clear and direct way, it is best to organize it deductively; that is, you should state your main idea near the beginning, usually at the end of the introduction.
The reason for this is simple: It is easier for your readers to comprehend what you say if they already know your topic, the way you intend to treat the topic (i.e. the mode of discourse), and the main points you will cover (your preview).
EXPOSITION (LITERARY) -- As applied to drama and to other forms of fiction, "exposition is the introductory material that creates the tone, gives the setting, introduces the characters, and supplies other facts necessary to understanding" (Harmon 201). In short, it orients the reader for the pursuant action by giving him the essential facts necessary to understand what is going on. Like the opening paragraph of a newspaper article, the exposition of a work of fiction answers the reporter's questions: who, where, when, why, and how.
Accordingly, exposition is usually thought of as occurring at the beginning of a literary work as shown in Freytag's Pyramid. This is a diagram representing the dramatic structure of a play as a pyramid that begins on the left bottom with exposition, develops through the rising action to the apex, or climax, decends on the right with the falling action, and ends at the base with the catastrophe. Many well known plays illustrate this convention, as for example Sophocles' Antigone or Shakespeare's Mcbeth. But this convention is not always followed in short stories or novels where the facts about time, place and character are revealed gradually as the plot unfolds.
FORMAL DEFINITION --
HIERARCHY -- The root of the word "hierarchy" is "hieros," which in Greek means "holy," and according to The American Heritage Dictionary, a hierarchy is "a body of clergy organized into successive ranks or grades with each level subordinate to the one above." Thus, the word denotes a kind of organization characteristic of many religions, and also of governmental, military, and business organizations. The description also applies to the organization of information in the directory structure of a computer or the outline of an essay. A hierarchy is a logical structure governed by rules.
IMPLICIT -- The word “implicit” comes from a Latin verb (implicare) that means to infold. (The prefix, “in--,” means “in,” and the root, “plicare,” means “to fold.” The metaphorical implication is that the meaning is folded within the writings and covered up. Hence, it cannot be seen until the reader himself unfolds the text to discover the meaning hidden within. So the main idea of such an essay will not be stated directly in any one sentence that you can point to and say “Here is the main idea.” To discover the main idea, you must think inductively, adding up clues from the evidence the writer presents and what he says about it.
IMPLY -- This is a verb that means to say or indicate indirectly; to hint at. An implication is the opposite of an explicit statement where the writer says what he means in direct and unmistakable terms. If a man says to his wife, "You are fat," there is no question as to the meaning of this explicit statement. However, he may want to send the message in a less explicit way by saying something like "Why don't you go with your friend Mary to the exercise club?" or "Maybe you need a better fitting dress for the Christmas party."
The words "imply" and "infer" are often confused. It is a speaker who makes an implication by his words, and it is the listener who draws an inference as to their meaning.
INDUCTION – According to The American Heritage Dictionary, induction is “the process of deriving general principles from particular facts or instances.” Inductive thinking is the process that detectives use in solving crimes. They investigate a crime scene collecting physical evidence, interview witnesses, and perform background investigations on suspects. They then look at the facts and see what they add up to. If the facts point to a particular suspect, then they make a decision that he is guilty and forward their conclusion and the supporting evidence to the district attorney. The decision the detectives make on the guilt of a suspect is their “general principle” derived “from the particular facts or instances.”
At the trial, the district attorney, operating on the “general principle” that John Doe is guilty, lays out the evidence to support this contention. Thus, the district attorney is working from a general principle (John Doe did it) to the presentation of the facts that support the idea. (This is called “deduction.”)
Once the idea of the idea of suspect's guilt is accepted by the prosecution, additional evidence can be interpreted within the context of this idea. For example, the prosecution may contend that John Doe killed his wife by throwing her off a cliff. If they discover a pair of shoes with dirt on the soles matching that found or a ridge above the place where the body was discovered, then this evidence corroborates their idea. Shoes with sand from the beach would be of no help, and a hotel receipt showing that John Doe was five hundred miles away on the day of the murder would contradict the prosecution's idea.
If sufficient evidence of this kind is presented, then the prosecution's assertion may be proven invalid, and a new theory of "who done it" must be developed. The way in which a scientific theory is overturned as the result of accumulating evidence that contradicts the theory is the subject of a book by Thomas Khun entitled The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. An example of an essay with inductive organization is given on this page.
INTRODUCTION -- The opening of a written work. The relevant dictionary definition is to open, to begin, to preface. The introduction of a written work is contained in one or more paragraphs or pages at the beginning of the work and has several functions. It should hook the reader's interest, narrow a general topic to one that can be adequately covered in the writing, give an overview of the whole document, set the tone of the writing, and state the main idea. For more discussion and examples click here. Also look at this example.
INTRUSIVE NARRATOR --
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z
|Top of This Page||Dr. Phillips Home Page||Works Cited|